Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of Composite Boats and Spars:
Many modern boats are built from composites – a combination of fibers and plastic matrices. Fibers might be randomly arranged, then flattened
into a sheet (called a chopped strand mat), or woven into a fabric. The fiber material is often glass, aramid or carbon where the plastic matrix is most often based on polymers such as polyester, vinylester or epoxy resins. Moreover, the trend for carbon fiber spars for sailboats is on the rise. Nowadays, carbon fiber spars are not only seen on racers but are also placed on a range of vessels such as cruising yachts, mega yachts and even on classic yachts. Due to the prevalence of fiber-reinforced composites (whether it is glass, aramid or carbon fibers) in boats, and due to lower safety coefficients, the need for damage-detection and characterization has increased. Hidden internal flaws and defects within a composite structure are not uncommon. These hidden flaws and defects might be resulting from manufacturing anomalies, applied stresses or weaknesses, accidents or improper repairs. They can have a significant impact on the structural integrity of the boat and are normally not detectable by radiography or by NDT techniques other than Ultrasonic Testing (UT).
Ultrasonic Testing (UT) can be used to detect the following:
Uniformity of laminate thickness
Presence and type of delaminations
Presence of voids and/or porosity
Quality and bonding of laminate and integrity of repairs
Inclusions and alien material presence in laminate
Advantages of Ultrasonic Testing of Composite Boats and Spars:
One-sided access is sufficient
Highly portable equipment provides inspections at remote locations and – at a pinch – even working aloft
Minimal or no surface preparation is needed
Highly accurate in determining the exact point of a hidden anomaly and its main characteristics such as depth, size and shape
Provides instantaneous results and objective data
Ultrasonic testing with the correct equipment and standard samples and with well-trained operators is a powerful and non-invasive method of detecting flaws and defects in composite materials. marineSOLUTIONS has invested extensively in the training of personnel, assortment of equipment and standard samples. Equipment and standard samples can be applied to many composite requirements. We use Olympus Epoch 650 Ultrasonic Flaw Detector, a state of the art digital flaw detector and Olympus Panametrics transducers some of which are specially designed and developed for inspection of composites. The instrument configuration is accepted and used in aerospace industry. The instrument calibration is kept up to date.
A valuation is a statement of opinion by a knowledgeable but disinterested party that a particular vessel is worth a particular amount at a particular place and a particular time under given conditions.
Clients may request a surveyor to carry out a valuation survey for pre-purchase purposes, for insurance or for finance when the client needs to verify the value to satisfy a third party (the insurance company or the bank), for his own curiosity or for legal reasons (dispute, estate administration, taxation etc.).
Strictly, a valuation is not a survey; it is rather a conjecture, an opinion. However, surveying the vessel is an important part of the valuation.
Condition of the boat, when compared to its peers, has an important contribution to the value of the vessel. However, some condition aspects contribute less to the value of the boat and some more. Some, like the condition of an aging navigation system, can have at face value an uncertain contribution.
A history of damages may be revealed as a result of serious investigation and certainly will influence the valuation of the boat.
Even lore around a vessel may have to be considered.
However, external contributories like market conditions or taxes influence valuation significantly as well.
Looking at the question of value from our perspective, we endeavour to determine nothing more or less than the price a sound person is prepared to pay for a particular yacht under a given set of circumstances. The circumstances are the physical details of the yacht and other factors which influence an individual’s decision as to whether to buy the yacht in contemplation.
For us, with a range of tools and information at our disposal, we endeavour to support our survey with a body of evidence that, if judged by a jury of peers, would withstand scrutiny.
This is the English translation of Turkish original. (In case of conflicting expression, the Turkish original will be considered as binding.)
“Surveyor/Consultant” is the Surveyor/Consultant trading under these conditions.
“Client” is the party at whose request the Surveyor/Consultant undertakes surveying services.
“Report” means any report or statement supplied by the Surveyor/Consultant in connection with instructions received from the Client.
“Disbursements” means the cost of all reasonable photography, reproduction of drawings, diagrams, sketches and printing, duplicating and, where applicable, electronic communication fees, and all reasonable and appropriate expenses including travel, subsistence and hotel accommodation where an overnight stay is necessary.
“Fees” means the fees charged by the Surveyor/Consultant to the Client and including any value added tax where applicable and any Disbursements.
The Surveyor/Consultant shall provide its services solely in accordance with these terms and conditions.
The Client will set out in writing the services which it requires the Surveyor/Consultant to provide. The Surveyor/Consultant will confirm in writing that it accepts those instructions or alternatively what services it will perform in connection with the Client’s instructions. Once the Surveyor/Consultant and the Client have agreed what services are to be performed (the Services) any subsequent changes or additions must be agreed by both parties in writing.
The Client shall pay the Surveyor/Consultant’s Fees punctually in accordance with these Conditions and in any event not later than 20 working days following the relevant invoice date, or in such other manner as may have been agreed in writing between the parties. Any delay in payment shall entitle the Surveyor/Consultant to interest at 7% above the Advance Rate of the Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Merkez Bankası (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) prevailing at the time of default.
5 Obligations and Responsibilities
(a) Client: The Client undertakes to ensure that full instructions are given to the Surveyor/Consultant and are provided in sufficient time to enable the required Services to be performed effectively and efficiently and to procure all necessary access for the Surveyor/Consultant to goods, premises, vessels, installations and transport and to ensure that all appropriate safety measures are taken to provide safe and secure working conditions. The Surveyor/Consultant shall not be liable for the consequences of late, incomplete, inadequate, inaccurate or ambiguous instructions.
(b) Surveyor/Consultant: The Surveyor/Consultant shall use reasonable care and skill in the performance of the services in accordance with sound marine surveying/consulting practice.
(c) Reporting: The Surveyor/Consultant shall submit a final written Report to the Client following completion of the agreed Services describing the Surveyor’s/Consultant’s findings and the condition and/or quality of the object and/or purpose of the assignment, unless otherwise expressly instructed by the Client not to do so.
(d) Confidentiality: The Surveyor/Consultant undertakes not to disclose any information provided in confidence by the Client to any third party and will not permit access to such information by any third party unless the Client expressly grants permission save where required to do so by an order of a competent court of law.
(e) Property: The right of ownership in respect of all original work created by the Surveyor/Consultant remains the property of the Surveyor/Consultant.
(f) Conflict of Interest/Qualification: The Surveyor/Consultant shall promptly notify the Client of any matter including conflict of interest or lack of suitable qualifications and experience, which would render it undesirable for the Surveyor/Consultant to continue its involvement with the appointment. The Client shall be responsible for payment of the Surveyor/Consultant’s Fees up to the date of notification.
(a) Without prejudice to Clause 7, the Surveyor/Consultant shall be under no liability whatsoever to the Client for any loss, damage, delay or any expense of whatsoever nature, whether direct or indirect and howsoever arising UNLESS same is proved to have resulted solely from the negligence, gross negligence or wilful default of the Surveyor/Consultant or any of its employees or agents or sub-contractors.
(b) In the event that the Client proves that the loss, damage, delay or expense suffered was caused by the negligence, gross negligence or wilful default of the Surveyor/Consultant aforesaid, then, save where loss, damage, delay or expense has resulted from the Surveyor’s/Consultant’s personal act or omission committed with the intent to cause same or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage, delay or expense would probably result, the Surveyor’s/Consultant’s liability for each incident or series of incidents giving rise to a claim or claims shall never exceed a sum calculated on the basis of ten times the Surveyor’s/Consultant’s charges or €100.000 whichever is the greater.
(c) Without prejudice to (a) and (b) above, the Surveyor/Consultant shall not be liable for loss of or damage to physical equipment and property placed at its disposal by, or on behalf, of the Client however such loss or damage occurs, unless such loss or damage was caused by act or omission committed with intent to cause some or recklessly with knowledge that such loss or damage would probably result.
Except to the extent and solely for the amount therein set out that the Surveyor/Consultant would be liable under Clause 6, the Client hereby undertakes to keep the Surveyor/Consultant and its employees, agents and sub-contractors indemnified and to hold them harmless against all actions, proceedings, claims, demands or liabilities whatsoever or howsoever arising which may be brought against them or incurred or suffered by them, and against and in respect of all costs, loss, damages and expenses (including, but not limited to, legal costs and expenses on a full indemnity basis) which the Surveyor/Consultant may suffer or incur (either directly or indirectly) in the course of the Services under these Conditions.
8 Force Majeure
The Surveyor/Consultant and/or the Client shall not, except as otherwise provided in these Conditions, be responsible or have any liability for any loss, damage, delay or failure in performance hereunder arising or resulting from natural disaster (act of God) (including, but not limited to earthquake, flood, tsunami, volcano, hurricane, tropical storm, cyclone, blizzard or other similar event), act of war, terrorist attack, nuclear contamination, seizure under legal process, epidemic quarantine restrictions, strikes, boycotts, lockouts, riots, civil commotions and arrest or restraint of princes ,rulers or people. Following a force majeure event either party may serve notice on the other to terminate the agreement.
The Surveyor/Consultant shall effect and maintain, at no cost to the Client, Professional Liability Insurance for such loss and damage for which the Surveyor/Consultant may be held liable to the Client under these terms and conditions. As per Clause 6 in any case the liabilty remains limited to €100.000.
10 Surveyor’s/Consultant’s Right to Sub-contract
The Surveyor/Consultant shall have the right to sub-contract any of the services provided under the Conditions, subject to the Client’s right to object on reasonable grounds. In the event of such a sub-contract the Surveyor/Consultant shall remain fully liable for the due performance of its obligations under these Conditions.
11 Time Bar
Any claims against the Surveyor/Consultant by the Client shall be deemed to be waived and absolutely time barred upon the expiry of one year from the submission date of the Report to the Client.
12 Jurisdiction and Law
These Conditions shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Republic of Turkey and any dispute shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the Republic of Turkey Courts.
The Standard Terms and Conditions as above may be changed upon need by requirement and circumstances determined by marineSOLUTIONS and changes will be announced and notified from here.
This is the English translation of Turkish original. (In case of conflicting expression, the Turkish original will be considered as binding.)
Out of all craft the wooden boat is the most elaborately built, most complex and requires special background knowledge of the surveyor who carries out a wooden boat survey. Building a wooden boat has many steps, from selecting the timber to preventing and curing rot.
1. Assessing the Timber for Wooden Boats
Wood is a highly “oriented1” material. With other words, wood’s properties along and across the grain are very different. A piece of wood, very suitable to bear highest of load along the grain can be easily cracked across the grain. Timber is produced from many kinds of trees. Every kind of tree provides timber of different properties. Some are stronger than the others, some are rot resistant, some have straight grain, some are knotty, some provide “crooks” as required for knees, floors, breasthooks etc. Some timber is excellent but costs dearly. Some timber is chosen due to aesthetic preferences. Furthermore, even the same species can show varieties. Anatolian oak is vastly different from, say, Swedish oak. Some timber is available as naturally grown, a style superior to the plantation grown variant of the same timber.
2. Has the Timber been treated properly?
Timber becomes only suitable for boatbuilding after it has been “seasoned”. Seasoning is a time consuming and critical process. If it is rushed, it will do more harm than good. If it is not done properly the timber will remain instable for all times.
3. Shaping, joining and fastening of Members
Good wooden craft have been built with suitable timber for every member. However, even the best of timber will not perform if not shaped, joined and fastened properly. Firstly, the design of each member makes a significant difference between a good boat and those which will cause continuous headache. In particular end grain, which remains exposed to drip and moisture is avoided in a good design. Then there is a variety of ways of joining timber. Proper joining is labour intensive and results in wastage. Quality fasteners are expensive and hard to get by.
4. Surveying the Coating
Wood has to be coated carefully and knowingly. Either one keeps timber fresh and “breathing” or one encapsulates the seasoned and shaped timber and avoids ingress of moisture. Both ways have their advantages and are acceptable to avoid or slow own decay.
The foremost disadvantage of wood is that it is welcome nutrition to many organisms. Timber softenes, rots, is attacked by marine borers, termites and other organisms, which can and eventually will compromise the timber’s structural properties if not checked in time. The above headings are a small selection of reasons, why surveying wooden craft is particularly challenging.
6. Wooden Boat Survey
We at marineSOLUTIONS® have a historic relation with all kinds of wooden boats. When assessing such craft we address, among others, the following questions:
Are the design details of the vessel adequate to the purpose? Are there fresh water pockets? Unventilated volumes?
Are the timber’s species, quality, and treatment suitable for the requirement?
Has the timber been shaped, joined and fastened properly?
Has the timber been coated adequately? Is the coating still serving its purpose?
Is there decay? Has there been decay in the past? If so, can it be treated?
Last, not least, we are knowledgeable about the nomenclature of wooden boats. This makes our reports readable for people of the trade.
Wooden boats are great. If you have in mind to buy a particular one, let us help you to decide, whether she is sound and “well found”, or whether she has the potential to ruin your pleasure. Alternatively, if you are experiencing problems with a particular wooden craft, be it due to maintenance issues or be it due to damages, please contact us for a wooden boat survey in order to tap into our expertise.
The International Association of Marine Investigators (IAMI) is a non-profit international organization dedicated to combating marine theft and insurance fraud.
To develop and provide high levels of training to law enforcement, insurance investigators, and other marine professionals. Working and training together with both public and private sectors to combat marine theft, arson, fraud and other criminal activity in the marine environment.
The objectives of IAMI, as stated in its constitution and by-laws, are as follows: • Provide marine theft investigative training; • Develop and disseminate educational materials to combat marine theft and fraud; • Provide a forum for the discussion of marine theft and related investigative activities and other topics of interest; • Promote marine theft prevention and suppression; • Encourage cooperation between law enforcement agencies and marine organizations; • Focus on the needs of the marine community; • Unite for the mutual benefit of those persons who are eligible for membership; • Accumulate and disseminate information of interest to all members; • Eliminate all factors that interfere with the administration of justice; • Operate as a non-profit organization.
Each year IAMI holds two major training seminars. IAMI U.S. holds a three-day seminar and IAMI Europe holds a 1 ½ day seminar in conjunction with their annual business meeting. The training is open to law enforcement, insurance investigators, Coast Guard officials and other marine professionals. Some topics normally covered at the seminars are: • Marine theft & fraud • HIN formats • Trailer serial numbers • Outboard and inboard serial numbers • Gaining and dissemination of intelligence; • Bank & insurance fraud investigations • Fire/arson investigations • Updates on changes in Coast Guard regulations and policies • Admiralty law • Accident investigations • Raising, tracing, and lifting HIN’s
Certified Marine Investigator
IAMI initiated the Certified Marine Investigator training and testing in 2003. This designation will ensure that marine investigators are qualified in various aspects of marine-related investigations; marine terminology, cause and origin of fires, forensic photography, investigative techniques, admiralty law and insurance fraud.
IAMI and Turkey
Turkey is on the crossroads between the West and the East, between South and the North. The Turkish Mediterranean coastline is scene to marine crime, in particular human trafficking. The Turkish Straits permit delivery of stolen/ embezzled yachts into the Black Sea – usually a “route of no return”. Law enforcement agents and Insurance agents have an interest in closing the door for crime between Europe, the Middle East and the Black Sea.
IAMI and marineSOLUTIONS
Principal partner of marine SOLUTIONS, Yusuf Civelekoğlu, was proposed for IAMI membership in 2011 following several successful recoveries which involved networking with IAMI members, in particular recovery of an embezzled catamaran in Bodrum, which had been reported lost on the Seychelles.
Yusuf was elected as member of the IAMI Europe Steering Committee in 2013 and is currently the Chairperson of IAMI-EU. Presently he is co-organising the annual conference to be held in Šibenik, Croatia, in October 2018.
Yusuf is a member of the Certified Marine Investigator examination committee.
marineSOLUTIONS’ partner Capt. Naci Arıcı and surveyors Cem Baykent and Tufan Tunalı are IAMI members.
The concept of IAMI began in 1986 when Major Dave MacGillis of the Florida Marine Patrol organised and published the Vessel Theft Investigators National Roster. The roster was intended to assist investigators combat marine theft, a high profit, low risk crime that was out of control, by providing contact persons from various agencies involved in marine theft investigations. The initial roster contained the names of nearly three hundred law enforcement, insurance industry, and marine community representatives who had agreed to provide assistance in the investigation of marine theft, insurance fraud, or title fraud cases.
In 1989, the first three-day training seminar was held in New Orleans, LA. The following year, 1990, the National Association of Marine Investigators (NAMI) was formed. As NAMI grew, our membership increased both nationally and internationally. In 1996, NAMI became the International Association of Marine Investigators (IAMI). We are now represented by marine professionals from all over the world. Whether your case is local or a country away, IAMI members are ready to lend a hand. Worldwide networking is one of the best benefits of IAMI.
This is the most comprehensive type of inspection, and is strongly advised to the buyer when purchasing a new or used vessel. Condition and operation of the vessel is examined in detail. Points covered, among many others, are structural integrity, electrical systems, the propulsion system…