marineSOLUTIONS

Your Marine Surveyors in the Eastern Mediterranean…


The Bay of Miletus and the Latmicus Sinus – Myus (Afsarkalesi)

Asarkale, the Antique Myus, probably once a peninsula connected to the mainland, seen here from the North, towards the Menderes River. Where once “Twohundred Triremes” could be at anchor today seas of cotton create the wealth of the Söke plains.

Skylax reading Freely in the Byzantine Tower.
View from the Byzantine Tower towards the North, over the old isthmus towards the Latmus.


“[10] The Ionians who settled at Myus and Priene, they too took the cities from Carians. The founder of Myus was Cyaretus the son of Codrus, but the people of Priene, half Theban and half Ionian, had as their founders Philotas, the descendant of Peneleus, and Aepytus, the son of Neileus. The people of Priene, although they suffered much at the hands of Tabutes the Persian and afterwards at the hands of Hiero, a native, yet down to the present day are accounted Ionians.
The people of Myus left their city on account of the following accident.

[11] A small inlet of the sea used to run into their land. This inlet the river Maeander turned into a lake, by blocking up the entrance with mud. When the water, ceasing to be sea, became stagnant(?), gnats in vast swarms bred in the lake until the inhabitants were forced to leave the city. They departed for Miletus, taking with them the images of the gods and their other movables, and on my visit I found nothing in Myus except a white marble temple of Dionysus. A similar fate to that of Myus happened to the people of Atarneus, under Mount Pergamus.”

Pausanias 7.2.10

“[10] The voyage from Pyrrha to the outlet of the Maeander River is fifty stadia, a place which consists of shallows and marshes; and, travelling in rowboats thirty stadia, one comes to the city Myus, one of the twelve Ionian cities, which, on account of its sparse population, has now been incorporated into Miletus. Xerxes is said to have given this city to Themistocles to supply him with fish, Magnesia (ad Meandrum) to supply him with bread, and Lampsacus (today’s Lapseki in the Dardanells) with wine.”

Strabo, 14.1.10

[3] They do not all have the same speech but four different dialects. Miletus lies farthest south among them, and next to it come Myus and Priene; these are settlements in Caria, and they have a common language; Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedos, Teos, Clazomenae, Phocaea, all of them in Lydia,
[4] have a language in common which is wholly different from the speech of the three former cities. There are yet three Ionian cities, two of them situated on the islands of Samos and Chios, and one, Erythrae, on the mainland; the Chians and Erythraeans speak alike, but the Samians have a language which is their own and no one else’s. It is thus seen that there are four modes of speech.”

Herodotus, 1.142.3

You can link to any of the hotspots on the map above: 1: Miletos, 2: Myus, 3: Priene, 4:Herakleia under the Latmos, 5: Domatia, Eski Doganbey

References:

Mursilis II, King of the Hethites, son of Subbiluliuma (14. Century BC) The Annals

Homeros (9. Century BC) The Iliad

Herodotos ( 5. Century BC) The Histories

Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus, (AD 23–79) The Natural History

Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), Geography

Pausanias,( 2. Century AD) Periegesis tes Hellados

Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, Le Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782-1822),
Maps from: Eski Haritalarda Bati Anadolu, Nezih Basgelen, Istanbul, 2005,
Engraving from: Gravürlerle Türkiye, Volume IV, Rep. of Turkey, Ministry of Culture, Ankara 1996

Miletus Model

Related Pages in this site:

The Carian Language

The ‎Hittites

Skylax

The Bay of Miletus and the Latmicus Sinus – Priene

“[11] (…) Priene is by some writers called Cadme, since Philotas, who founded it, was a Boeotian. Bias, one of the Seven Wise Men, was a native of Priene, of whom Hipponax says stronger in the pleading of his cases than Bias of Priene.”

Strabo, 14.1.11

“(…) that the Maeander, flowing through the land of the Phrygians and Carians, which is ploughed up each year, has turned to mainland in a short time the sea that once was between Priene and Miletus.”

Pausanias 8.24.11

“[1]The Ionians then came there with their ships manned, and with them the Aeolians who dwell in Lesbos.
This was their order of battle:
The Milesians themselves had the eastern wing, bringing eighty ships; next to them were the Prieneans with twelve ships, and the Myesians with three; next to the Myesians were the Teians with seventeen ships; next to these the Chians with a hundred; near these in the line were the Erythraeans, bringing eight ships, and the Phocaeans with three, and next to these the Lesbians with seventy; last of all in the line were the Samians, holding the western wing with sixty ships.
[2] The total number of all these together was three hundred and fifty-three triremes.”

(Describing of the Seabattle of Lade)

Herodotus, 6.8.1-2

“[10] The Ionians who settled at Myus and Priene, they too took the cities from Carians. The founder of Myus was Cyaretus the son of Codrus, but the people of Priene, half Theban and half Ionian, had as their founders Philotas, the descendant of Peneleus, and Aepytus, the son of Neileus. The people of Priene, although they suffered much at the hands of Tabutes the Persian and afterwards at the hands of Hiero, a native, yet down to the present day are accounted Ionians. (…)

Pausanias 7.2.10

[3] They do not all have the same speech but four different dialects. Miletus lies farthest south among them, and next to it come Myus and Priene; these are settlements in Caria, and they have a common language; Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedos, Teos, Clazomenae, Phocaea, all of them in Lydia,
[4] have a language in common which is wholly different from the speech of the three former cities. There are yet three Ionian cities, two of them situated on the islands of Samos and Chios, and one, Erythrae, on the mainland; the Chians and Erythraeans speak alike, but the Samians have a language which is their own and no one else’s. It is thus seen that there are four modes of speech.”

Herodotus, 1.142.3

You can link to any of the hotspots on the map above: 1: Miletos, 2: Myus, 3: Priene, 4:Herakleia under the Latmos, 5: Domatia, Eski Doganbey

References:

Mursilis II, King of the Hethites, son of Subbiluliuma (14. Century BC) The Annals

Homeros (9. Century BC) The Iliad

Herodotos ( 5. Century BC) The Histories

Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus, (AD 23–79) The Natural History

Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), Geography

Pausanias,( 2. Century AD) Periegesis tes Hellados

Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, Le Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782-1822),
Maps from: Eski Haritalarda Bati Anadolu, Nezih Basgelen, Istanbul, 2005,
Engraving from: Gravürlerle Türkiye, Volume IV, Rep. of Turkey, Ministry of Culture, Ankara 1996

Miletus Model

Related Pages in this site:

The Carian Language

The ‎Hittites

Skylax

The Bay of Miletus and the Latmicus Sinus – Pre-Antique and Antique Miletus

 

For as the Milesians had command of the sea,
it was of no use for (Alyattes) army to besiege their city.
Herodotus, 1.17.1

 

YEAR 3: (23) So it became Spring. Because Uhhazitis stood beside (i.e. allied himself with) the king of Ahhiuwa, the land of Millawanda (…) to the king of Ahhiuwa. I, My Sun(god) (…). And (I) sent forth Gullas and Malazitis (with) troops and horse(-troop)s, and they attacked (the land of Millawanda?), and they came back (lit. took up) with deportees, cattle and sheep (and they brought them away to Hattusas).”

Mursilis II, King of the Hethites, son of Subbiluliuma (14. Century BC) The Annals

 

“(…) And Nastes again led the Carians, uncouth of speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams of Maeander, and the steep crests of Mycale.”

Homer, The Illiad, 2.867

“[7](…) Notable men were born at Miletus: Thales, one of the Seven Wise Men, the first to begin the science of natural philosophy and mathematics among the Greeks, and his pupil Anaximander, and again the pupil of the latter, Anaximenes, and also Hecataeus, the author of the History, and, in my time, Aeschines the orator, who remained in exile to the end, since he spoke freely, beyond moderation, before Pompey the Great. But the city was unfortunate, since it shut its gates against Alexander and was taken by force, as was also the case with Halicarnassus; and also, before that time, it was taken by the Persians. And Callisthenes says that Phrynichus the tragic poet was fined a thousand drachmas by the Athenians because he wrote a play entitled The Capture of Miletus by Dareius.(…)”

Strabo, 14.1.7

“[1](…) This was how (Alyattes) attacked and beseiged Miletus: he sent his army, marching to the sound of pipes and harps and bass and treble flutes, to invade when the crops in the land were ripe;
[2] and whenever he came to the Milesian territory, he neither demolished nor burnt nor tore the doors off the country dwellings, but let them stand unharmed; but he destroyed the trees and the crops of the land, and so returned to where he came from;
[3] for as the Milesians had command of the sea, it was of no use for his army to besiege their city.(…)”

Herodotus, 1.17.1

“[2] They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night. Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen.
[3] So when the Lydians and Medes saw the day turned to night, they stopped fighting, and both were the more eager to make peace.(…)”

Herodotus, 1.74.2

“[3] When (Croesus) came to the river Halys, he transported his army across it–by the bridges which were there then, as I maintain; but the general belief of the Greeks is that Thales of Miletus got the army across.
[4] The story is that, as Croesus did not know how his army could pass the river (as the aforesaid bridges did not yet exist then), Thales, who was in the encampment, made the river, which flowed on the left of the army, also flow on the right, in the following way.
[5] Starting from a point on the river upstream from the camp, he dug a deep semi-circular trench, so that the stream, turned from its ancient course, would flow in the trench to the rear of the camp and, passing it, would issue into its former bed, with the result that as soon as the river was thus divided into two, both channels could be forded. [6] Some even say that the ancient channel dried up altogether. But I do not believe this; for in that case, how did they pass the river when they were returning?”

Herodotus, 1.75.3

“[3] It was the design of the Persian admirals to flee to the shelter of (their own) army, and there to beach their ships and build a fence round them which should be a protection for the ship and a refuge for themselves. With this design they put to sea. So when they came past the temple of the Goddesses at Mykale(…), they beached their ships and fenced them round with stones and the trunks of orchard trees which they cut down; they drove in stakes around the fence and prepared for siege or victory, making ready, after consideration, for either event.”

Herodotus, 9.96.3

“[2] (…) As for the Leleges, some conjecture that they are the same as the Carians, and others that they were only fellow-inhabitants and fellow-soldiers of these; and this, they say, is why, in the territory of Miletus, certain settlements are called settlements of the Leleges, and why, in many places in Caria, tombs of the Leleges and deserted forts, known as “Lelegian forts,” are so called. However, the whole of what is now called Ionia used to be inhabited by Carians and Leleges; but the Ionians themselves expelled them and took possession of the country, although in still earlier times the captors of Troy had driven the Leleges from the region about Ida that is near Pedasus and the Satnioïs River. So then, the very fact that the Leleges made common cause with the Carians might be considered a sign that they were barbarians. And Aristotle, in his Polities also clearly indicates that they led a wandering life, not only with the Carians, (…)”

Strabo, Geography, 7.7.2

“[1]The Persian fleet wintered at Miletus, and putting out to sea in the next year easily subdued the islands that lie off the mainland, Chios and Lesbos and Tenedos. Whenever they took an island, the foreigners would (net) the people.
[2] This is the manner of their doing it: the men link hands and make a line reaching from the northern sea to the southern, and then advance over the whole island hunting the people down. They also captured the Ionian cities of the mainland in the same way, but not by netting the people; for that was not possible.”

Herodotus, 6.31.1

“Wherefore they (the Syrians) reverence the fish as of the same origin and the same family as man, holding a more reasonable philosophy than that of Anaximandros; for he declares, not that fishes and men were generated at the same time, but that at first men were generated in the form of fishes, and that growing up as sharks do till they were able to help themselves, they then came forth on the dry ground.”

Passage in Aristoteles about Anaximandros of Miletos

“[2] All the rest spoke their minds to the same effect, favoring revolt, with the exception of Hecataeus the historian who, listing all the nations subject to Darius and all his power, advised them that they should not make war on the king of Persia. When, however, he failed to persuade them, he counselled them that their next best plan was to make themselves masters of the sea.
[3] This, he said, could only be accomplished in one way (Miletus, he knew, was a city of no great wealth), namely if they took away from the temple at Branchidae the treasure which Croesus the Lydian had dedicated there. With this at their disposal, he fully expected them to gain the mastery of the sea. They would then have the use of that treasure and their enemies would not be able to plunder it.
[4] The treasure was very great, as I have shown in the beginning of my account. This plan was not approved, and they resolved that they would revolt. One out of their number was to sail to Myus, to the army which had left Naxos and was there, and attempt to seize the generals who were aboard the ships.”

Herodotus, 5.36.2

The Ilyas Bey Mosque at Miletus and the Principality of Mentese

General view of the Ishak Bey Külliyesi.
In the Cemetery at the Ishak Bey Mosque, on a more recent “stone” than the one above, one can be read:God is eternal
Look, traveller, don’t be taken by surprise
Collect yourself,
Many years you have lived,
And what all befell you,
Death, the destiny has arrived,
And a stone has been set up at your head.
Mustafa Ali Kiliç, Veteran of Gallipoli
B: 1307 (AH) D: 1962
Commence to read the Coran for his soul.

Above the geometrically ornate marble Mihrap of the Ilyas Bey Camii, a very special and fine example of its kind.

Already in late Antiquity the silts of the Menderes had severed off Miletus from the high seas and vessels of only modest size could travel to Miletus “upriver”. One of the last accounts is that of Cyriacus, a merchant from Ancona, who reported to have travelled in 1412 on a merchantman up to the port under the theatre.

In Byzantine Times Miletus became “Palatia”, the palasts, as above the ruins some villas had been erected. Obviously lacking the glory it had once enjoyed in antiquity, it still remained a centre of wealth and culture. When it came down to choosing an architect for the Haghia Sophia, Emperor Justinianus opted for a Milesian, Isidoros of Miletos. Up to the 14th century Palatia was a diocese, until the area was eventually subjected to the Turks of the Anatolian Selçuks. The name was vernaculized to “Balat”.

The Meneteseoglu Beyligi was a Turkic Principality founded by Mentese Bey. They were seagoing and entertained a remarkable navy which managed to occupy Rhodes in 1300.This triggered the Knights of St. John to crusade to the island which they regained in 1314.

The Mentese Beyligi tried in vain to regain Rhodes in 1320. Together with Aydinoglu Umur bey they fought the Latins until a peace treaty was signed in 1355.

Some of their very important diplomatic instruments, the Ahid-Names with the State of Venice, have survived to our time.

The Menteseoglu remained installed until the mid 15th century. Their capital was Mylasa/Milas and their retreat the Beçin Castle. Ilyas Bey, the Dominus Palatie, was one of the most brilliant sovereigns of this small principality.

The Ilyas Bey Mosque was completed in 1404, an era when all Anatolia was in turmoil after the devastating defeat of the Ottoman Sultan Beyazit against Timur Han the Lame at the Battle of Ankara. It appears that Timur Han supported the Principalities of Anatolia, or as it was called then, the Beyligs of Rum, of Rome.

The Ilyas Bey Mosque was a complex with a shrine and a religious school annexed. Few remains of the madrasah have survived, but the mosque is in good state.

You can link to any of the hotspots on the map above: 1: Miletos, 2: Myus, 3: Priene, 4:Herakleia under the Latmos, 5: Domatia, Eski Doganbey

References:

Mursilis II, King of the Hethites, son of Subbiluliuma (14. Century BC) The Annals

Homeros (9. Century BC) The Iliad

Herodotos ( 5. Century BC) The Histories

Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus, (AD 23–79) The Natural History

Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), Geography

Pausanias,( 2. Century AD) Periegesis tes Hellados

Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, Le Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782-1822),
Maps from: Eski Haritalarda Bati Anadolu, Nezih Basgelen, Istanbul, 2005,
Engraving from: Gravürlerle Türkiye, Volume IV, Rep. of Turkey, Ministry of Culture, Ankara 1996

Miletus Model

Related Pages in this site:

The Carian Language

The ‎Hittites

Skylax

The Hittites

Yesterday (May 15th, 2002), I went to Yalıkavak Küdür. The reason behind my trip was to render an opinion about a problematic old wooden door. Once completed my task, I got into a conversation with Prof. Manfred Blanke, owner of the house. He was an archaeologist and a Hittite expert. Below is a summary of our one hour long conversation shedding some light onto our Anatolian ancestry.

The Naval Battle of Abukir

Plan of the Abukir Naval Battle

 

 

İngilizlerin hatt-ı harb gemileri

1 GOLIATH
2 ZEALOUS
3 ORION
4 AUDACIOUS
5 THESEUS
6 VANGUARD
7 MINOTAUR
8 BELLEROPHON
9 DEFENCE
10 MAJESTIC
11 ALEXANDER
12 SWIFTSURE
13 LEANDER
14 CULLODEN

Fransızların hatt-ı harb gemileri

1 GUERRIER
2 CONQUERANT
3 SPARTIATE
4 AQUILON
5 PEUPLE SOUVRAIN
6 FRANKLIN
7 ORIENT
8 TONNANT
9 HEUREUX
10 TIMOLEON
11 GUILLAUME TELL
12 MERCURE
13 GENEREUX
Fransız fırkataları
14 SERIEUSE
15 ARTEMISE
16 DIANE
17 JUSTICE

This Chapter describes the harbour called Ebugur

This Ebugur 117 is a broad and excellent natural harbour. Before the harbour there is a tower and four miles exactly northeast of that tower there is an island. There are two channels between the island and the tower. The first is located a mile and a half southwest of the island and the depth is eighteen spans. The second channel is located southwest of the first and its depth is a bit more than twelve spans. There is no passage anywhere else, there being numerous scattered islets of rock here. Some are mere rocks over which sea washes. If big bargias wish to reach Ebugur however, they cannot enter through these channels for they are not deep enough. Instead they should proceed eastward from the north eastern side of the big island and then round to the southeast taking soundings until they come near the shore. After that, a hill of white sand appears to the south by the sea and they set straight for that hill in four fathoms of water. There they drop anchor on two sides and so lie. When proceeding coastwise along here they will pass through six fathoms of water. In the case of galleons and galleys on the other hand, there are two more channels on the east-south-eastern side. In other words, there are two more channels besides the ones near the shore through which big bargias may pass. They are midway between the big island and the channel through which the big bargias pass. Some bargias on the other hand place the island to their northwest and drop anchor there and so lie. The depth where the ship lies is four fathoms. The bottom is fine coral and sand though it turns to muddy sand as one proceeds from Ebugur to Reşid. When approaching Ebugur Adası118 in a big bargia, they should proceed more than a mile along the east-northeast side. The sea all around the island is foul and they should be wary of it. A mile and a half out to sea there is a shoal over which there are three fathoms of water. They should not proceed unless they take soundings all the while. Galleys may approach and enter through the two channels on the north-western side and approaching closer lie opposite the tower. But they should not approach the shore for it is too shallow. Only small craft and caiques may reach the shore.

Now the landmark of Ebugur harbour from the sea is this. First one sees a high place like an island, on the summit of which is a grove of date palms and white buildings. From a distance it resembles a prosperous place. One should approach them and on the seashore of the north-eastern side of those buildings the bastion of Ebugur will become visible. One may also recognise it by Ebugur Island as has been mentioned. Arab seamen call this island Garo119. It is a low-lying island and one should proceed about a mile away from it along both the east-southeast and the southwest sides, for the sea is rocky and foul. From Ebugur it is thirty miles to Raşid Boğazı120. On the way is the mouth of a lagoon they call Uştum.121 There are two mouths to this lagoon but this is not a place to approach in a ship for the sea is foul and full of shallows as far as Nil Ağzı122. On the Reşid side of these channels two miles inland there is a big village that the Arabs call Utku123. On the southern side of that village is a big lake that connects to the Nil river.


Let it be known as such and so much that.

117 Abukir. Bay and village between the Rosetta mouth of the Nile and Alexandria. The site of ancient Canopus, Abukir was the scene of three important battles involving variously the French, British and Turks between 1798 and 1801.

118 Jazirat Gharw. Small island at the entrance of Abukir harbour.

119 Arab name for Abuklir island.

120 Rosetta Mouth. The western branch of the Nile River in the Nile Delta. It was called the Bolbitinic mouth in ancient times.

121 Buhaayrat Idku would appear to be the only possible candidate.

122 Literally “The Mouth of the Nile”. In ancient times the Nile had seven branches in its delta; today there are two principal mouths: Rosetta on the west and Damietta on the east.

123 Idku. Village on the north-western shore of Buhayrat Idku.

The Bay of Miletus and the Latmicus Sinus The Latmus

View onto the Latmian Gulf from Herakliea. Almost all islands have harbour monasteries, as does the mountain itself.

“[8] Next comes the Latmian Gulf, on which is situated “Heracleia below Latmus,” as it is called, a small town that has an anchoring-place. It was at first called Latmus, the same name as the mountain that lies above it, which Hecataeus indicates, in his opinion, to be the same as that which by the poet is called “the mountain of the Phtheires” (for he says that the mountain of the Phtheires lies above Latmus), though some say that it is Mt. Grium, which is approximately parallel to Latmus and extends inland from Milesia towards the east through Caria to Euromus and Chalcetores. This mountain lies above Heracleia, and at a high elevation. At a slight distance away from it, after one has crossed a little river near Latmus, there is to be seen the sepulchre of Endymion, in a cave. Then from Heracleia to Pyrrha, a small town, there is a voyage of about one hundred stadia.
[9] But the voyage from Miletus to Heracleia, including the sinuosities of the gulfs, is a little more than one hundred stadia, though that from Miletus to Pyrrha, in a straight course, is only thirty–so much longer is the journey along the coast. But in the case of famous places my reader must need to endure the dry escriptions of geography.

Strabo, 14.1.8-11

Gigantic Byzantine Fortress on a monolithic rock in the Latmus

You can link to any of the hotspots on the map above: 1: Miletos, 2: Myus, 3: Priene, 4:Herakleia under the Latmos, 5: Domatia, Eski Doganbey

References:

Mursilis II, King of the Hethites, son of Subbiluliuma (14. Century BC) The Annals

Homeros (9. Century BC) The Iliad

Herodotos ( 5. Century BC) The Histories

Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus, (AD 23–79) The Natural History

Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), Geography

Pausanias,( 2. Century AD) Periegesis tes Hellados

Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, Le Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782-1822),
Maps from: Eski Haritalarda Bati Anadolu, Nezih Basgelen, Istanbul, 2005,
Engraving from: Gravürlerle Türkiye, Volume IV, Rep. of Turkey, Ministry of Culture, Ankara 1996

Miletus Model

Related Pages in this site:

The Carian Language

The ‎Hittites

Skylax

Domatia (Domaçya, Eski Doganbey) on Mt. Mykale (Samsundag)

Domatia, or Eski Doganbey is a quaint village, in the process of being carefully and tastefully restored. It is one of the few places in the area where men seem to build and rebuild in harmony with nature. Gateway to the “Samsundag Milli Parki” for those who would like to hike on Mt. Mykale.

You can link to any of the hotspots on the map above: 1: Miletos, 2: Myus, 3: Priene, 4:Herakleia under the Latmos, 5: Domatia, Eski Doganbey

References:

Mursilis II, King of the Hethites, son of Subbiluliuma (14. Century BC) The Annals

Homeros (9. Century BC) The Iliad

Herodotos ( 5. Century BC) The Histories

Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus, (AD 23–79) The Natural History

Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), Geography

Pausanias,( 2. Century AD) Periegesis tes Hellados

Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, Le Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782-1822),
Maps from: Eski Haritalarda Bati Anadolu, Nezih Basgelen, Istanbul, 2005,
Engraving from: Gravürlerle Türkiye, Volume IV, Rep. of Turkey, Ministry of Culture, Ankara 1996

Miletus Model

Related Pages in this site:

The Carian Language

The ‎Hittites

Skylax

The Bay of Miletus and the Latmicus Sinus

The fertile plains of the Menderes River, or the Meandros, form the northern border of Caria. For a mariner, one of the many fascinations lies in the fact that these plains have formed only relatively recently and continue to form: Their extension into the Aegean Sea increase by several metres per annum. So here we have the chance to travel over sea, or to be more precise, over what used to be the sea, by foot, on a bike or another land vehicle.